What is myopia

What Is Myopia? Causes And Remedies For Nearsightedness

Refractive errors in general and myopia in particular are the leading cause of vision loss in the world today. In addition to causing vision loss, myopia can change the structure of the eye, putting the patient at risk for future eye diseases.

What Is Nearsightedness?

  • Myopia is a refractive error in the eye, the eye does not bend (refract) light properly, light rays focus in front of the retina instead of on the right retina. This is the most common refractive error, especially in school age and adolescents.
  • People with myopia can only see close objects clearly, but have difficulty seeing distant objects. Therefore, when nearsighted people look at distant objects, they often have to squint.

Types Of Myopia


Simple Myopia

  • This is the most common type of myopia, usually seen in school-age children, ages 10 to 18. People with simple myopia often have myopia of less than 6 diopters and often accompanied by astigmatism.
  • The cause of myopia is usually due to working conditions and genetics. Diseases tend to develop over a period of time and stop at a certain level.

Induced Myopia Or Acquired Myopia

  • It is caused by vitreous sclerosis, a side effect of some prescription medications, high blood sugar (diabetes), and a number of other causes.

Pseudo Myopia

  • Pseudo-myopia occurs when the eye is hyper-accommodating, the ciliary organs responsible for adjusting the eye’s adaptive capacity contract, causing a temporary impairment of the ability to see at a distance. The symptoms of false myopia are the same as those of normal myopia, but the eye will recover after a period of rest.

Degenerative Myopia Or Pathological Myopia

  • This is the most severe type of myopia, patients often have myopia of more than 6 diopters accompanied by retinal degeneration of the posterior hemisphere of the eye. When you have degenerative myopia, the eyeball axis is continuously stretched, causing the degree of myopia to constantly increase, the condition of myopia is getting worse.
  • The disease will be more dangerous if not treated in time, causing diseases such as retinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and glaucoma seriously affecting eye health. However, this disease is quite rare and often appears from an early age, so parents should regularly take their children to a reputable eye hospital for timely detection and treatment.

Levels Of Myopia

What is Myopia Causes

Based on the results of visual acuity measurement, the table of myopia can be divided into the following 3 groups

  • Mild Myopia: -0.25 to -3.00 D, this is a sign of mild myopia.
  • Moderate myopia: -3.25 to -5.00 D or -6.00 D
  • Severe myopia: greater than -5.00 D or -6.00 D. Severe myopia needs special control because it can cause many risks of eye complications such as amblyopia, even blindness.

Causes Of Nearsightedness (Myopia)

  • Myopia is caused by an imbalance between the axial length of the eyeball and the refractive power of the eye.
  • The most common is due to the long axis of the eyeball (making the distance to the retina longer, the image cannot enter the retina).

Who Is Prone To Nearsightedness?

  • Although nearsightedness is common in people between the ages of 8 and 12, it can happen at any age.

Causes Of Myopia

  • Family History: This condition tends to run in families. You are at higher risk if one of your parents, or both, is nearsighted.
  • Age: Myopia can be classified by age as childhood myopia or “school” and late-onset myopia (after age 15). The main factor that contributes to the faster progression of myopia in children is at a young age when myopia begins.
  • Habits: Read a lot in insufficient light or use computers, phones, tablets for a long time, not giving your eyes a break.
  • Environmental Conditions: Such as living only in the room, not spending much time out in natural light.

Symptoms Of Myopia

Symptoms Of Myopia

People with myopia often have signs and symptoms of nearsightedness such as:

  • Blurry vision when looking at distant objects;
  • Frequent squinting;
  • Headache due to eye strain;
  • Difficult to see at night.

Usually myopia can be detected early in school age (school myopia or congenital myopia). In particular, the signs to recognize myopia in children are as follows:

  • When watching TV, children must be close enough to watch;
  • Read the text or skip lines or use your finger to follow the words as you read;
  • In class, they have to get close to the board to see;
  • When writing, many words are wrong, missing or have to be copied;
  • Or bent down to look at a book;
  • Squinting or tilting the head when looking at distant objects;
  • Rubbing your eyes even if you’re not sleepy;
  • Often complains of eye strain, headache or watery eyes;
  • Afraid of bright light or glare, dislike activities that have to look far away

When To See A Doctor

  • It is not possible to clearly see distant objects and this affects daily work.
  • Visual impairment reduces the ability to enjoy life.
  • Glare or dark streaks may be visible, partially blocking vision.

How To Cure Myopia

how to cure myopia

Physical Methods

  • You can massage, acupressure, warm compress, practice looking away, close your eyes to rest after a long time of working with eyestrain.

Treatment Of Nearsightedness With Medication

There are many drugs to support myopia treatment or limit progressive myopia (limit increase in number), but currently there are no therapeutic drops to lose weight.

Supplementing With Vitamin A And Pre-Vitamin A

  • Vitamin A and Beta Carotene precursors participate in the metabolism of light-sensitive cells, when vitamin A deficiency will reduce light adaptation. Therefore, fortification of Vitamin A will help support enhanced light adaptation.

Vitamin B Group Supplement

  • Vitamin B group is related to the process of nerve conduction, deficiency of vitamin B group for a long time, especially for those who work too close to the computer, causing fatigue, eye pain, headache, loss of energy. B group vitamins help reduce eye strain, headaches, i.e. a study

The Potion Protects The Bottom

  • Luzarthin Zeaxanthin Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E trace elements such as Zn, CuFe So Cr These drugs contain substances that protect and help reduce the progression of these diseases.

Atropine And Cyclogyl Down Regulators

  • Atropin 0.05% is considered an adjunct in the treatment of severe myopia, indicated for patients with false myopia and ineffective physical methods.
  • Syclein Cara is a milder deregulatory drug than Atropin and is therefore considered safer.

Wearing Glasses

wearing glasses

Frame Glasses

  • Wearing glasses with frames is suitable for people with mild myopia, when playing or not concentrating may not need glasses. Do not read books while sitting in the car because it will make the distance from the book to the lost continuously change, causing the eyes to adjust.


  • Wearing contact lenses may be more aesthetically pleasing, but is more likely to cause dry eyes. Therefore, patients should only use it for a short time.

Hard Contact Lenses For Night Wear (Ortho-K)

  • Corneal flattening (reducing the curvature of the cornea) by wearing contact lenses.
  • Ortho-K is an effective method especially for patients with myopia grade 2, patients with moderate and high myopia. Helps patients do not need to wear periods during the day and myopia almost does not increase. Patients will wear Ortho-K at night while sleeping, wake up the next morning and vision will be clear without glasses.

How To Cure Myopia With Surgery

Refractive Surgery

  • The advantage is good effect, high safety, short recovery time, can completely treat refractive error. However, the cost of surgery is still high and many people are still afraid to move the “cutlery” to the eye area.

Phakic Surgery

  • This method is also known as intraocular lens placement, usually applied to patients with high myopia but not eligible for refractive surgery. The downside is the risk of glaucoma, the potential for inflammation, and the longer recovery time compared to refractive surgery.

Vitreous Replacement Surgery

  • This is the last method in the treatment of this refractive error, only indicated when the patient has too high myopia and cannot have surgery by other methods

Measures To Prevent Myopia

  • Go for an eye exam every 6 months to get the best advice for your eyes.
  • Control chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension.
  • Protect your eyes from the sun by wearing sunglasses that block ultraviolet (UV) rays.
  • Prevent eye damage by wearing eye protection when doing things like playing sports, mowing the lawn, painting, or being exposed to toxic fumes.
  • Quitting smoking not only has a positive effect on your eyes, but also on your overall health.
  • Wear glasses to correct refractive errors.
  • Limit eye strain by letting your eyes relax after a few minutes of using the computer or reading a book.
  • Balanced nutrition also helps your eyes better. For nearsighted people, it is recommended to use a lot of brightly colored foods, including many vitamins such as: A, E, C, B

How To Prevent Myopia For People Who Are Not Nearsighted

  • Study and work scientifically, give your eyes a rest after work.
  • Protect your eyes when working, when exposed to toxic chemicals. Protect your eyes from UV rays and the sun by wearing glasses when it’s sunny.
  • Have your eyes checked regularly. Please wear full glasses when you are nearsighted to avoid more serious disease.
  • Enhance nutritional supplements for the eyes, especially Vitamin A.
  • Particularly, students need to pay attention to their sitting posture, do not study in low-light places, with standard tables and chairs. Recently, school myopia is increasingly common because students use a lot of technology devices such as computers and phones. Therefore, in order to prevent myopia, children need to limit the use of too many technological devices.

Effective Home Remedies For Myopia

home remedies for myopia

Hand-Eye Exercises

  • This exercise can help you increase your ability to see distant objects. Hang a picture or poster on the wall in front of you. Then, starting in a standing position in the middle of the room, relax your body in a straight back position. Next, bring the index finger of your dominant hand up a few inches from your nose and focus your gaze on the tip of your finger until you can see clearly.
  • Once you have a clear view of your fingertips, start moving your gaze rapidly toward the picture on the wall. When you first start practicing, you just need to stand a few meters away from the wall and when you can see the picture clearly, then step back until you can no longer see clearly. Continue to step back to train your eyes to see far and there will come a time when you will be able to see the picture from a great distance.

Concentration Exercise

  • Sit comfortably and hold the pen/thumb about 10cm away from your nose. Move your gaze quickly from the pen/finger to the opposite direction in the room and look at an object for a few seconds then back to the pen/finger again. Repeat the exercise 10 times. Once you have improved your distance vision, choose a further object to look at.

Pencil Move Exercise

  • This exercise can help reduce eye strain when looking at a distance. Hold the pencil in front of you and pull it away until you see a blurred image. You need to imagine a checkered board in front of you and move the pen across the cells, then return to the original position. While moving the pen, follow it with your eyes. You should do this exercise once a day.

Can Myopia Be Reduced?

  • Myopia cannot be reduced by itself, but only one way to reduce myopia in the long-term for you is eye surgery such as LASIK, LASEK, PRK, etc. About 90% of people after LASIK have vision from 20/ 20 to 20/40 without glasses or contact lenses. However, if your myopia has not been stable before, it may still increase after surgery.
  • These methods do not completely cure myopia, but they only repair the cornea so that the image focuses properly on the retina. Thereby improving your eyesight. Performing these surgeries requires advanced equipment and is therefore often expensive and may present some risks due to direct impact on the cornea.

Can Myopia Increase If You Don’t Wear Glasses?

  • As a result, children with refractive errors without wearing glasses with the correct number will lead to a rapid increase in refractive errors. Not only that, a long time without glasses will make it difficult for children to get used to and adapt to new glasses. Without glasses for a long time, children’s myopia increased faster, some children increased to 2-3 degrees.

Is The Myopia Blind?

  • Mild myopia usually does not increase the risk of serious eye diseases. Vision problems caused by nearsightedness can be corrected with glasses or eye surgery.
  • But if myopia progresses to more severe myopia, complications such as glaucoma, cataracts, and retinal detachment can be a very serious threat to vision.
  • Damage to the retina is associated with vision loss, i.e. blindness, so they are important and should be treated promptly by a doctor.

At What Age Myopia Stops Increasing

  • Usually by the age of 18, myopia will not increase anymore or increase very slowly. Especially until the age of 25 or older, the degree of myopia will not increase anymore because the eyeball does not develop anymore.

Hope this article gives you some useful information about Causes and ways to overcome myopia

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